Seeing Double: Levels of Processing can cause False Memory

Kronlund (Mantonakis), Antonia and Bruce W. A. Whittlesea. “Seeing Double: Levels of Processing can cause False Memory.” Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 59.1 (2005): 11-16. Print.
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Ordinarily, deeper levels of processing in a study session increase the accuracy of later remembering. We modified the standard levels-of-processing procedure by presenting items either once or twice in the study phase, each item being the subject of a semantic, phonemic, or graphemic question. At test, the subjects judged the frequency with which each word had occurred in the study phase. Deeper processing during encoding increased accuracy in judging twice-presented items. However, it also caused an illusion of repetition for items presented only once. The result underlines the importance of thinking of remembering as a process of evaluation and inference, rather than simple retrieval. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)